140 - How to Make Ethernet Cable

You can make your own Ethernet cable to achieve lengths that you want, it's actually an easy and straightforward task to make your own. This process can also help you repair damaged cable in the home or at the office without having to fork out cash for replacements.

Before you get started, make sure you have the necessary tools, and decide whether you're going to use Cat 5e or Cat 6 network cables.

What you will need:

• Cat5, Cat5e, Cat6, or Cat7 cable.
• RJ-45 connectors.
• RJ-45 crimping tool.
• Cable tester. (optional, but recommended)
• Wire cutters, wire strippers, or scissors.

About Modular Connector Plugs and Jacks.

The 8P8C modular connectors for Ethernet are often called RJ45 due to their physical ressemblance.

There are four pairs of wires in an Ethernet cable, and an Ethernet connector has eight pin slots.

Each pin is identified by a number, starting from left to right, with the clip facing away from you.

There are two basic ethernet cable pin outs:

T568A Standard

Pin 1 • White Green
Pin 2 • Green
Pin 3 • White Orange
Pin 4 • Blue
Pin 5 • White Blue
Pin 6 • Orange
Pin 7 • White Brown
Pin 8 • Brown

T568B Standard

Pin 1 • White Orange
Pin 2 • Orange
Pin 3 • White Green
Pin 4 • Blue
Pin 5 • White Blue
Pin 6 • Green
Pin 7 • White Brown
Pin 8 • Brown

Category 5 or Cat5 cabling is the most commonly used cable used today for networks.

You may also use Category 6 or CAT6 cabling which has higher performance specifications and is about 20% more expensive than CAT5e.

Once you have the necessary equipment needed to create a network cable you need to determine the type of network cable you want to create.

There are two major network cables:

Straight Through Cables • The use of Straight Through cable is to connect one computer into network with going through a router, switch or hub.

Crossover Cables • The use of Crossover Ethernet cable is to directly connect one computer to another computer (or device) without going through a router, switch or hub.

Here's how to make a standard cable:

Step 01 • Cut into the plastic sheath about 1 inch (2.5 cm) from the end of the cut cable. The crimping tool has a razor blade that will do the trick with practice.

Step 02 • Unwind and pair the similar colors.

Step 03 • Pinch the wires between your fingers and straighten them out as shown. The color order is important to get correct.

Scissors • Cutting instruments that are very handy and easy to use. Good alternative for making a perfect cut.

Note: Use scissors to make a straight cut across the 8 wires to shorten them to 1/2 Inch (1.3 cm) from the cut sleeve to the end of the wires.

Step 04 • Carefully push all 8 unstripped colored wires into the connector. Note the position of the blue plastic sleeve. Also note how the wires go all the way to the end.

Step 05 • A view from the top. All the wires are all the way in. There are no short wires.

Step 06 • Crimping the cable - carefully place the connector into the Ethernet Crimper and cinch down on the handles tightly.

The copper splicing tabs on the connector will pierce into each of the eight wires. There is also a locking tab that holds the blue plastic sleeve in place for a tight compression fit. When you remove the cable from the crimper, that end is ready to use.

Crimping Tool • Used for cutting, stripping and terminating plugs for RJ45 network and RJ11 phone cables. Crimp tool can be used with stranded and solid core cable.

Step 07 • Next is the other side of the cable.

For a standard "Straight Through" cable, repeat all steps and wire color order on the other end of cable.

For a cross-over cable, the other end will have a different color order as shown by the crossover picture.

Step 08 • Test your Ethernet Cable using Ethernet Tester.

The Ethernet Cable Tester use to verify the proper connectivity of the cable.

If your ethernet cable doesn't turn out, look closely at each end and see if you can find the problem. Often a wire ended up in the wrong place or one of the wires is making no contact or poor contact.

Also double check the color coding to verify it is correct. If you see a mistake or problem, cut the end off and start again. A ethernet cable tester is invaluable at identifying and highlighting these issues.

Network Cable Tester • Used for testing Local Area Networks. Automatically runs all tests for continuity, open, shorted and crossed wire pairs. Slow and fast switch and LED indicator shows malfunctions. Can be used on RJ11, RJ12, 10 Base T and token ring cables.

How to Use Network Cable Tester:

01 Turn the testing unit on. Plug the ends of your RJ45-terminated cable into the tester's two ports - it doesn't matter what order you do this in.

02 Depending on which tester you use, the test function will be either manual or automatic. If you're using the automatic test mode, simply push the button and let the unit do its work. If you need to use a manual mode, simply hit the test button repeatedly to advance through all 8 wires.

03 You'll see two separate bars of indicators, each with 8 lights. Watch these indicator lights as the test sequence is completed, wire-by-wire. If both the “input” and “output” indicators for each wire are brightly lit, then you know that optimum connection has been made. A dim light indicates poor connection, and no light at all lets you know that connection is not being made.

When the ethernet cable are tested and worked properly. Thats mean we are done with making ethernet cable.

Note: When sizing ethernet cables remember that an end to end connection should not extend more than 328 feet or 100 meters. Try to minimize the ethernet cable length, the longer the cable becomes, the more it may affect performance. This is usually noticeable as a gradual decrease in speed and increase in latency.

Step 09 • Creating Ethernet Cable is Complete!

Now that you have an Ethernet cable, you can now use your it for your computer network.

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