043 - Networking Fundamentals

Network is a group of two or more computer systems or other electronic devices that linked together through cable, wifi, satellites, bluetooth, infrared or internet. The purpose of a network is to be connected with other computer and enable to send or receive a files and information between multiple systems.

A network is any collection of independent computers that communicate with one another over a shared network medium. A computer network is a collection of two or more connected computers. When these computers are joined in a network, people can share files. When networks at multiple locations are connected using services available from phone companies, people can send e-mail, share links to the global Internet, or conduct video conferences in real time with other remote users.

Packet Data

a small amount of computer data sent over a network. Any time you receive data from a network or internet, it comes to your computer in the form of many little packets. Each packet contains the address of its origin and destination, and information that connects it to the related packets being sent. The process of sending and receiving packets is known as packet-switching. Packets from many different locations can be sent on the same lines and be sorted and directed to different routes by various computers along the way. It works a lot like the post office, except billions of packets are transferred each day, and most packets take less than a few seconds to reach their destination.

Depending on the type of network, packets may be referred to another name: frame, segment, block or cell.
Node - is either a connection point, a redistribution point, or a communication endpoint.

Types Of Networks

Local Area Network (LAN) • The computers are geographically close together or simply in the same building.
Wide Area Network (WAN) • The computers are farther apart and are connected by telephone lines or radio waves.
Campus Area Network (CAN) • The computers are within a limited geographic area, such as a campus or military base.
Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) • The computers are within a very large geographic area, such as town or city.
Personal Area Network (PAN) • The computers, tablets or phones are within a proximity of around a few meters.
Home Area Network (HAN) • A network contained within a user's home that connects a person's digital devices.
Global Area Network (GAN) • A network composed of different interconnected networks that cover an unlimited geographical area. The term is loosely synonymous with Internet, which is considered a global area network.
Storage area network (SAN) • is a high-speed network of storage devices that also connects those storage devices with servers. It provides block-level storage that can be accessed by the applications running on any networked servers.
Enterprise Private Network (EPN) • is a network that is entirely controlled by one organization and it is used to connect multiple locations. Operated their own network separate from public internet.
Virtual Private Network (VPN) • uses a technique known as tunneling to transfer data securely on the Internet to a remote access server on your workplace network.

Internet • is global communication accessed through the web.
Intranet • is shared content accessed by members within a single organization.
Extranet • is shared content accessed by groups through cross-enterprise boundaries.

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