062 - What is Computer Processor

A Processor or "Microprocessor," is considered as the brain of the computer. Central Processing Unit (CPU) performs all types of data processing operations. It stores data, intermediate results and instructions (program). It controls the operation of all parts of computer.

The CPU is an electronic machine that works on a list of things to do, called 'instructions'. It reads the list of instructions and does (executes) each one in order. 

A list of instructions that a CPU can run is a computer program. The CPU is responsible for interpreting and executing most of the commands from the computer's hardware and software.

A central processing unit (CPU) is the logic circuitry within a computer that carries out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetic (computations such as adding, subtracting, multiplying, and dividing), logical, control and input/output (I/O) operations specified by the instructions. 

Traditionally, the term "CPU" refers to a processor and its control unit (CU), distinguishing these core elements of a computer from external components such as main memory and I/O circuitry.

The form, design and implementation of CPUs have changed over the course of their history, but their fundamental operation remains almost unchanged. 

Principal components of a CPU include the arithmetic logic unit (ALU) that performs arithmetic and logic operations, hardware registers that supply operands to the ALU and store the results of ALU operations, and a control unit that fetches instructions from memory and "executes" them by directing the coordinated operations of the ALU, registers and other components.

Most modern CPUs are microprocessors, meaning they are contained on a single integrated circuit (IC) chip. An IC that contains a CPU may also contain memory, peripheral interfaces, and other components of a computer; such integrated devices are variously called microcontrollers or systems on a chip (SoC). 

Some computers employ a multi-core processor, which is a single chip containing two or more CPUs called "cores"; in that context, single chips are sometimes referred to as "sockets". Array processors or vector processors have multiple processors that operate in parallel, with no unit considered central.

The speed that a CPU works at is measured in hertz (Hz). Modern processors often run so fast that gigahertz (GHz) is used instead, which means a billion cycles per second. 

There are two main types of CPUs found in computers today: 32-bit and 64-bit. The CPU market for desktop (home) computers is controlled by two companies: Intel and AMD.

Processor is also known as: CPU, central processor or microprocessor.

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